Milestones in the history of blood gas- and electrolyte analysis
Set by ESCHWEILER – Kiel
It began on January 07, 1951, with the founding of L. Eschweiler & Co., whose aim was to utilize the results of research for commercial purposes. Wilhelm Eschweiler, as a member of the Physiological Institute at Kiel University, brought his experience and his contacts to wellknown scientists into the new company. Through the years up to 1990 he has determined the course of developments in a decisive way.
Shortly after the company had been founded, developments took place which were decisive for blood gas analysis at all. Below you find a short abstract of only the most important ones:
The first commercially-manufactured apparatus in the world for measuring oxygen pressure was put on the market. It is the HAEMOXYTENSIOMETER I with a mercury drop electrode. (According to Bartels, Pflügers Archiv, Vo. 254, pp. 107-125)
Further development of the apparatus. With the HAEMOXYTENSIOMETER II follows – in addition to the oxygen measurement – the pH-measurement, which makes it possible to measure the acid-base-status (Astrup method) and the indirect pCO2 -measurement.
We patented a photometric process for plotting the oxygen-binding curve.
The first, previously not possible direct pCO2 -measurement is introduced with a stabilized all-glass electrode according to D.W. Lübbers and collaborators with technical cooperation of W. Eschweiler. Out of this originates the COMBI-ANALYSER for macro- and micro-samples with an open thermostat.
In place of the open thermostat the COMBI-ANALYSER U is equipped with a circulation thermostat with thermostatized measuring units. At that point all methods were known which are now used in blood gas analysers. From then on the methods were merely improved and the operation made more convenient.
We patented an Electrode arrangement for polarographic oyxgen analysis and Procedure and equipment for determining acid-base-status in small amounts of fluid.
We introduce an Apparatus for showing changes in O2-concentration as a result of biological organisms located in a closed space.
Development of a device for culture of micro organisms and higher cells in submersion culture under controlled conditions, the system FERMENTER KIEL.
The worldwide first equipment for continuous measurement of pO2 ,pCO2 and pH, the ANALYSER D, is developed.
The COMBI-ANALYSER MT, a compact apparatus with only one measuring unit and a sample volume of only 80 microliters, is introduced.
As the only blood gas analyser up to then, the ANALYSER D is equipped with a temperature converter from the standard temperature to the actual body temperature.
The COMBI-ANALYSER MT – program is expanded to include the electronic acid-base-calculator R6.
As the first combination of blood gas/pH- and electrolyte measurement, the ANALYSER D is equipped with a K+ -measuring channel.
We introduce our blood gas/pH-automat Type MT-A 100. In this apparatus the dialogue procedure known from computer technology is applied for the first time in blood gas analysis. Self-testing programs and automatic plotting of the polarogram add the operational safety.
The new future-oriented conception for the 80‘s had begun with the COMBI-ANALYSER MT 55 for semi-automatic measurement of pO2 , pCO2 , pH , K+ and Na+ from a blood specimen of only 100 microliters.
The new fully-automatic systems COMBI-ANALYSER MT-A 300, MT-A 400 and MT-A 500 which are equipped with screens, round about 30 years of ground-breaking research and development in the sector of blood gas/pH- and electrolyte analysis for the present.
ESCHWEILER goes new ways and introduces a blood gas-electrolyte program as an expandable modular system – the SYSTEM 2000.
The additional Ca++ -measurement is included in the SYSTEM 2000.
The first analysing system for blood gases plus 5 electrolytes (ISE) and hemoglobin (tHb) is introduced to the international markets.
The modern compact systems ECOSYS for blood gases and ECOLYTE for up to 5 electrolyte parameters meet the new demand.
The premium-class COMBISYS for the combined measurement of 3 blood gas parameters plus 5 ISE-electrolyte parameters and total hemoglobin is placed.
Introduction of the new mobile ECOSYS II for blood gas measurement with progressive liquid calibration for „point of care“ use. No bulky gas cylinders or external gas supply are required anymore. The ECOSYS II Hb with an integrated t-Hb sensor allows the simultaneous measurement of blood gases and t-hemoglobin.
The fully automatic analysing system
for the direct measurement of blood gases, electrolytes and t-hemoglobin is changed to liquid calibration without external gas connections.
The next generation: ESCHWEILER modular, extensible analysing systems, easy and economical in a modern and functional design. Direct measurement of blood-gases, electrolytes and t-hemoglobin. New generation of Biosensors for glucose and lactate determination in whole blood.
ESCHWEILER modularPRO , the new PC-based generation of analysing systems. Easy to use operation by touch screen, barcode reader, connection to clinic-internal networks via LAN-interface.
ESCHWEILER combi line – flexible, expandable and economical analysing system for bloodgas-, electrolyte and tHb measurements.
ESCHWEILER combi line with additional metabolite parameters glucose and lactate.
Since the founding of the company we have worked closely with scientific research. Extreme measuring precision is therefore a most important policy matter for us. We make great demands on ourselves and our equipment.